By: Elyse                Categories: 3D AnimationAnimationBooksGamesGeneral

Roger’s top 10 reasons why you can’t select your object

MY GOOD FRIEND Roger Cusson is, like me, a longtime instructor on 3ds Max. One day we got to talking about the challenges of teaching such a large and complex program, and we agreed that the biggest barrier new students have is confusion about selecting objects.

Roger proposed that since we go over these pitfalls in every class, he should publish a list of Roger’s Top 10 Reasons Why You Can’t Select Your Object. The list never actually got published until the first edition of this book. Here is the list, printed for the first time in the first edition of this book and back by popular demand, including a cutout reminder list that you can tape to your laptop or monitor for easy reference.


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By: Elyse                Categories: AnimationBooks

The term intellectual property refers to a collection of laws that protect products of the mind or personality, such as:

–        Copyrights

–        Trademarks

–        Rights in ideas, and

–        Rights of publicity

The laws that protect patents and trade secrets are also part of intellectual property, but these are generally less important to the comic book creator.


Intellectual property is often referred to by its abbreviated label, “IP.” So when you see IP in this book it means intellectual property, NOT internet protocol (nor Iberian Peninsula, incontinentia pigmenti, nor ice pellets).

All comic book deals are built upon the foundation of IP. When you design a costumed hero, you own more than the drawing in your sketchbook: you own the copyright to your drawing, the potential to trademark that character’s name, and the legal rights to control how that character is used in comic books, merchandising, films, and beyond. In other words, even though your copyright registration certificate is not as pretty as the drawing it represents, it may potentially be worth a lot more than even your most valuable signed original sketch!

It may be helpful to think of your IP as the “heart” of your creative rights.

INTERVIEW “By and large we see that a lot of the new, ‘green,’ creators, want to be part of this business . . . but they don’t understand what the actual business is. They are very weak on any of the legal, any of the IP, any of the copyright stuff. [. . .] If you want to make this your living, if you want to be a professional, you’re going to need to know how to copyright something. What’s parody? What’s not? Can I get sued for this?” – MIKE ARMSTRONG, Sales Manager, New York Comic Con (NYCC)

Excerpt from The Pocket Lawyer for Comic Book Creators by Thomas Crowell © 2014 Focal Press an imprint of Taylor and Francis Group.

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By: Elyse                Categories: AnimationBooksGeneral

Sande Scoredos was the executive director of training and artist development at Sony Pictures Imageworks. She was committed to working with academia, serving on school advisory boards, guiding curriculum, participating on industry panels, and lecturing at school programs. She was instrumental in founding the Imageworks Professional Academic Excellence (IPAX) program in 2004. Sande chaired the SIGGRAPH 2001 Computer Animation Festival and was the curator chair for the SIGGRAPH 2008 Computer Animation Festival.

Sande produced Early Bloomer, a short film that was theatrically released. Her other credits include: Stuart Little, Hollow Man, Spider-Man, Stuart Little 2, I Spy, Spider-Man 2, Full Spectrum Warrior, The Polar Express, Open Season, Spider-Man 3, Surf’s Up, Beowulf, I Am Legend, and Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs.

Before the Pitch: Register Your Work

Before you pitch your idea to anyone, your family, friends, your uncle Joe that works at a studio, or even random strangers, protect everyone—and your idea—by finding out who owns the rights to your idea. Do not talk about your idea until you have gone through the registration process or have an agent. You never know who is listening at Starbucks. If you are pitching for a school project you may find that your school already owns the rights. Likewise, if you work in the entertainment industry, your company may own the rights to anything resembling intellectual property. Ask your career services advisor or legal department about ownership rights and be sure to read your deal memo and contract agreement.

Most studios will only take pitch meetings through an agent. That is to protect you and them against copyright claims. For information on copyright filings, check the United States Copyright Office website, Read the guidelines carefully and follow the procedures.

Know Who Will Hear Your Pitch

Now, prepare for that pitch.

Successful pitches are carefully designed and orchestrated. Many brilliant ideas have fallen by the wayside due to poor pitching skills.

Whether you are pitching a 30-second short to your animation professor or an epic to a studio executive, find out who is going to hear your pitch.

You have just a few seconds to grab their attention and convince everyone in the room that your story is worth telling. How you describe it, visualize it, sell it, and sell yourself will all work for you or against you.

First, be honest and decide if you are the best person to make the pitch. If you get flustered speaking to a group, then let someone else do the talking. Not everyone needs to be part of the formal presentation so play to your strengths.

Talk to the “gatekeeper,” the key contact who is setting up the meeting, and ask him or her to tell you who might attend. If you can, find out their titles and what influence they have on the process. Then do your homework.

The World Wide Web is a wealth of information. Check out the backgrounds of each person who may be in the meeting.

• Try to get a recent picture of each person. • What types of projects do they like? • What projects have they worked on? • Where did they grow up? • What college did they attend? • What projects are in their catalog? Do they already have an animated film about two talking zebras? Oops, your project is about two zebras so think about how your project fits into their plans. • Get your facts straight and then double check them. Just because it is on the web or IMDB does not make it true.

Why is this important? If you can find a relevant personal connection, then you can tap into that with a casual chat, discover mutual acquaintances or interests. But be careful. You want to stand out just a little more from the other pitches and be remembered in a good way. Your pitch should always be short and to the point, not too deep or detailed or it can get boring. You want a balance of wellrehearsed but not memorized, engaging and delivered with enthusiasm but not clownish, and delivered with confidence and passion for the project.

This business is all about relationships so you want to connect with the people in the room.

Preparing for the Pitch

Make sure you know your story. Research your idea and know what else is out there that remotely resembles it—is there a character, city, situation, movie or game that is similar to yours? You can bet that someone at the pitch will say this sounds like XYZ, the classic film from 1932 directed by some obscure foreign director. Assume that anyone in the pitch session has seen it and heard it all. Nothing is worse than the silence you hear that follows the comment, “What else have you got?” A potentially embarrassing moment can turn in your favor if you can intelligently discuss the other work, and its relationship to yours. You will look good if you not only know of this piece but can intelligently discuss this reference.

You also want to make sure you have the rights to the properties and characters. Say your story centers around a landmark building in downtown New York. Believe it or not, you may not be able to obtain or afford the rights to use that building. Same goes for characters and music. If your story cannot be made without that specific Beatles song, consider the reality and cost of acquiring the rights.

If your project requires getting the rights, be prepared to discuss the status of your negotiations in the meeting. If you do not have an original concept and cannot afford to obtain rights for existing properties, check out the properties in the public domain.

Photo by Bradley Gordon


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By: Elyse                Categories: AnimationBooksInspirationInterviews

The following is an excerpt for Digital Arts Masters: Volume 4. In Digital Art Masters, you will meet some of the finest 2D and 3D artists working in the industry today and discover how they create some of the most innovative digital art in the world. In this excerpt, Jelmer Boska walks you through his creation of his own personal work, Portrait of Keith Richards.


It all started in a Vancouver theatre around May 2007 where I watched the third part of the Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End for the first time. About half way in, Keith Richards made his introduction in the role of Captain Teague. When he appeared on screen I had goose bumps; the way Keith looked in his red pirate costume reminded me so much of an illustration of the infamous pirate, Blackbeard, in a children’s pirate book I used to own – I loved that image and have kept it in my head ever since. A few months later, Disney released the book The Art of the Pirates of the Caribbean where I once again met with Captain Teague. This time he appeared in the form of an amazing drawing done by one of my heroes, Mark “Crash” McCreery. There the idea was born.

I felt it was time to add something new to my portfolio, and this would be something I’d very much enjoy doing. Although I started off with the intent to create a portrait of Keith Richards as Captain Teague, he never made it to that state. I changed my mind during the process and decided to go for a realistic portrait of the man himself instead. Well … at least it got me a good “piratey” introduction for this article – Yarr!


I started off the way I usually start any project, which is by gathering related reference imagery. I found a couple of decent photos of Keith and also took some screen grabs from the movies, where I had the opportunity to see him from more specific angles. During my search for references it was inevitable that I came across some of the famous caricaturist, Sebastian Krueger’s work. He has portrayed and caricaturized the Rolling Stones, and Keith personally, quite a few times. Throughout the process I constantly had to be aware not to caricaturize my portrait too much. Keith has got a lot of characterizing features in his face, and sticking close to his real proportions, instead of caricaturizing them, was a challenge!


I mocked up a base mesh for the bust in XSI fairly quickly, with the idea to get working on the likeness in ZBrush as soon as possible. I kept the base model very simple, since it would be used for still purposes only, and wouldn’t have to deform (Fig.01).

Fig 1


When doing a likeness, details hardly matter; it’s the main proportions that matter, and in particular the visual triangle indicating the relations between the eyes and tip of the nose. I found that once you nail those proportions, the character usually starts to become recognizable. You do start to stare blind after a certain amount of time, so I tried to get as much of the main work done as possible within the first hours after starting work on the model.

I tend to start off by subdividing the model about three times right after importing it into ZBrush. From there I start to refine and build the main forms. I have become a big fan of the Clay Tubes tool, which allows me to change and add volume in certain areas in a very natural way. After getting the bigger primary forms down I carved in a couple of Keith’s most characterizing wrinkles, which are formed mostly around his mouth and cheekbones.

Having a dual monitor setup was most helpful for this project: I find that being able to have my main reference images up on one screen, while working on the other, is almost mandatory for this kind of work. Once I started sculpting it was just a matter of constant refinement: looking at the reference photos and comparing them to the model. I didn’t really find any shortcuts or tricks doing a portrait – it seems to be just a matter of training your eye and trying to sculpt what you can see (Fig.02 – 03).

Fig 2

Fig 3

Texturing & Shading

The texture painting was completely done in ZBrush as well. Using the polypaint tools I quickly painted a diffuse texture directly on the model. Knowing the final image would be black and white, I didn’t spend too much time on this.

After having exported the diffuse map from ZBrush, I hooked the image up in a pretty simple shading tree using Mental Ray’s standard fast skin surface shader (Fig.04). I applied this to the high-res model, right out of ZBrush. The model sits at about 2 million quad polygons at its highest subdivision level, and I sadly wasn’t able to render this in XSI without crashing my machine. I ended up exporting the second highest resolution mesh and generating an additional map, based on the volume differences between the highest two levels and applied this as a bump map to the model in XSI.

Fig 4

The hair was done in XSI, too – the hair tools are great and pretty easy to use. I grew about eight different selections of hair to form his haircut. I looked at sections and strands that characterized his hair most to base my hair selections on, and focused on those specific areas. The hair was very much modeled to the camera, and looks rather ridiculous from any other angle (Fig.05).

Fig 5

Lighting & Rendering

The final light rig was made up out of a standard threepoint light setup using area-lights. The key light was placed on a sharp angle high above the model to create deep shadows under his eyebrows – something I found to help sell the likeness a bit more. A bright rim light was placed directly behind Keith, to separate him from the background a little. To soften out some of the shadows on one side and generate some nice contrast in the lighting, I placed a soft fill light on the left side of the model (Fig.06).

Fig 6

The image was rendered in 4 passes, those being two specular and beauty passes for the head and the hand plus the cigarette. The beauty pass showed the model lit and fully shaded, but without any specular highlights. Those were rendered out separately in a specular pass, so that I could have a bit more control over it later on in Photoshop.

Compositing & Finalizing

There wasn’t too much work left to be done in Photoshop besides combining all the passes, desaturating the image, adjusting the levels a touch and adding a depth of field effect using the blur tools. The smoke was painted in later, and to finish the whole thing off I added some grain, which I found added a lot of character to the final image (Fig.07a – e).

Fig 7a

Fig 7b

Fig 7c

Fig 7d

Fig 7e


And that’s about it! I very much enjoyed working on this portrait and am happy to call this one done. I hope you like it.

Excerpt from Digital Art Masters: Volume 4 by 3dtotal.Com © 2009 Taylor & Francis Group. All Rights Reserved. Digital Art Masters can be purchased,, and wherever fine books can be found.

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By: admin                Categories: AnimationBooksGames

The following is an excerpt from Stewart Jones’ Digital Creature RiggingDigital Creature Rigging gives you the practical, hands-on approaches to rigging you need, with a theoretical look at 12 rigging principles, and plenty of tips, tricks and techniques to get you up and running quickly.

A lot of 3D packages create bones as a “special” sort of object/node, with specific bone-only properties that no other node in the application has. One of the unusual, but very awesome, features of 3ds Max’s bone system is that any object can become a bone, grab hold of all the properties and attributes that make it a bone, and behave exactly the same. I still prefer to use bones when creating a skeleton, but the option to use anything we want is sort of cool. When it comes to currently selecting the joints and bones that make up our creature’s skeleton, it is a bit cumbersome, as we have to select through the mesh. As we do not have any controllers in place or an actual rig setup just yet, that is really the only thing we can do for the moment. However, as bones are not classed as a “special” sort of node within 3ds Max, we can edit their appearance to make selecting them easier.

Of course, we could jump into the Bone Tools options and turn on “Fins” adjusting them to better fit the mesh, but this would be a waste of time, as we can do something much better. With a bone of your choice selected, head over to the Modify Panel and add an “Edit Poly” modifier to the bone. With the Edit Poly modifier applied, we are able to go into all of the parameters, attributes, and options for the modifier and edit the look of the bone. What this means is that we can reshape every bone in the skeleton to fit our creature very closely.

Make sure to keep this as a very low-poly edit so the bones can evaluate quickly in the viewports. By doing this, not only has this made selecting the bones easier, but it has also created a low-poly “cut” version of the creature. In later stages when this creature is placed into an environment, the skinned geometry may cause the scene to slow down, and this can make the animation process incredibly difficult, as if it was not difficult enough already. By having this low-poly cut skeletal version of the creature, the animator can hide the geometry and use this instead. Obviously, this will not give the animator access to view the deformations of the creature with the geometry hidden, but it should speed the viewport up and give a very good representation of the size and mass of the creature as it moves and interacts with the environment. I usually leave the fingers out of this bone reshaping step, both because it can end up taking too long and because it is not overly beneficial for the animators at this stage.

Oh yeah, and you can mirror to the other side too! Simply copy the “Edit Poly” modifier from a completed bone, paste it to the other side, then add the “Mirror” modifier and adjust the parameters so it fits correctly.

FIG 4-44 An Edit Poly modifier added to the bones of Belraus and reshaped to fit the geometry.

Reshaping Bones

To reshape the bones of your creature, simply add an “Edit Poly” modifier to each bone and edit away. You can easily mirror to an opposite side by copying the modifier to the other bone and adding a “Mirror” modifier and adjusting the parameters so it fits correctly.

To complete this reshaping, it is a good idea to color the bones using our coloring convention. Although these bones may not be seen at all when we introduce the animation rig, we still want them to be easily distinguishable while in this base rig phase.

Excerpt from Digital Creature Rigging: The Art and Science of CG Creature Setup in 3ds Max by Stewart Jones.  © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group. All Rights Reserved. Digital Creature Rigging can be purchased,, and wherever fine books can be found.

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By: Elyse                Categories: AnimationBooks

The human eye is drawn to the area of greatest contrast just as it is naturally drawn to the optical center of the frame. The most dramatic contrast is between black and white as shown in Figure 10-13, but this principle applies even if your tonal values are relatively close, as Figure 10-14 demonstrates. No matter how close the values, the characters will stand out from the backgrounds.

Figure 10-13 - 10-14

[Fig. 10-13, Fig. 10-14] A screaming gal in a monster movie and a screaming gull in a beach picture. The eye immediately goes to the areas of greatest tonal contrast even when the values are close, as shown in Figure 10-14.


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By: Elyse                Categories: AnimationBooks

This licensing agreement might be used for background design artwork for a splash page or a comic book cover. With some modifications it could also be used to license a short story.

Artwork License Agreement –

This Agreement dated __________, 20__ (the “Effective Date”) is made by and between Beard-O-Brush, an artist, residing at ________________ (hereinafter, “Licensor” *1), and Carlo Creator, a comic book creator, residing at ________________ (hereinafter, “Licensee” *2). Licensor and Licensee may each be referred to herein individually as a “Party” and collectively as the “Parties.”


WHEREAS, Licensor is the owner of the Artwork (as defined below);

WHEREAS, Licensee is the creator of the Comic Book (as defined below);

WHEREAS, Licensee wishes to acquire the rights to use the Artwork on the cover of the Comic Book, and in any reprint of the Comic Book, as hereafter defined; and

WHEREAS, Licensor is willing to grant to Licensee, and Licensee wishes to accept, a limited license to the Artwork on the terms and conditions set forth in this Agreement.

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises, and of the mutual undertakings herein contained, the parties, intending to be legally bound, agree as follows:


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By: Elyse                Categories: AnimationBooks

Cutting: What Part of the Action Do You Show?

– If you only show the anticipation of an action, the audience will wonder if the action happened or whether it will happen in the future.

– If you show just the aftermath of an action, you imply that the event already happened before we arrived to see it.

– If you show the lead up to the event then cut to after it, you imply that the event happened but while we were away from the scene.

– Whenever you don’t show the event but imply that it happened, the audience will create it in their own minds.


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By: Elyse                Categories: AnimationBooks

1. Sometimes the best way to really sell a character is to present them in a well-polished image that puts them into some kind of context. This could relate to their function, job, or place within the world that they inhabit. It also provides the character designer with a good reason to stretch their artistic legs a little and produce a stunning piece of design that also serves as an eye-popping piece of artwork. This image by Paul Green is a superb example of this.

2. Paul began by coming up with a design for his central character. His first pencil sketches were very quick and loose as he explored shapes and proportions for the character. These provided the basis for producing a couple of full-body studies, which he finished with clean inked line-work. Although each one was built from the same base template, they were quite different to one another while sharing certain similarities, such as the cloak, goggles, staff, and flowing belts or straps. This version of the character featured a stylized physique with very broad shoulders and elongated limb proportions (stylistic decisions discussed in the “Breaking Anatomy” chapter, pages 102–107). These features created a dynamic, heroic feel for the character.


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By: Elyse                Categories: AnimationBooks

And when all is said and done, making money through self-publishing (especially with a printed title) can be difficult. To see why, let’s follow the money as it goes from the comic book storeowner’s wallet to yours.

1. Purchaser buys the book for $4.00

2. Retailer keeps approximately 40–50% of the cover price = ($2.00)

3. The distributor, who has sold the book to the retailer on a nonreturnable basis, might have bought it from you at 60–70% off of the cover price. a. So, if the cover price is $4.00, and the distributor purchased it from you at 70% off the cover price, you will get $1.20 per book.

4. Keep in mind however, that out of that $1.20 per book (if you’re lucky) you have to pay printing costs, as well as any other production costs (which can be quite considerable). In fact, these costs can actually exceed the revenue from the sales of your book. In other words, you might be losing money!

As you can see, for a smaller “floppy comic” (single issue, 22-page soft cover comic), the profit margins are often too small to make economic sense. Many artists only self-publish longer books and selling them for $15–$25 per book.

Have I scared you off yet? No? Great—let’s learn about printers!


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